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In 1791, watchmaker and goldsmith Jean-François Bautte created a manufacturing company in Geneva grouping, for the first time ever, all the watch making facets of that time, which meant starting from the engineering of the watch all the way to the final hand assembly and hand polishing of each watch. In 1852, the watchmaker Constant Girard founded the Girard & Cie Firm in La Chaux-de-Fonds. He, then, married Marie Perregaux and the Girard-Perregaux Manufacture was born in 1856. The Manufacture has approximately 80 patents in the watch-making domain and is the originator of many innovative concepts. In 1880 Constant Girard produced the first ever major commercial production of a wristwatch (2000 watches), made for German naval officers. In 1965 Girard-Perregaux designed the first mechanic movement at high frequency, at which the balance beats at 36,000 vibrations/hour(the Gyromatic). In 1971 Girard-Perregaux presents its first wristwatch to the world to be equipped with a quartz movement which vibrates at 32,768 hertz, the frequency remaining the universal standard for quartz watches today. The Girard-Perregaux Manufacture designs and develops its own movements of which the Tourbillon with three gold bridges is one of the most emblematic pieces.